In Charles Spurgeon’s Treasury of David, he says the subject of Psalm 110 is “The Priest King”. There were no kings in Israel who were both priest and king. This psalm points to Jesus Christ, the coming Priest King:
Psalm 110:1 – “The Lord said to my Lord, ‘Sit at my right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool’.”
After Jesus completes the work of our salvation, He will ascend to heaven and sit at the right hand of His Father until His return. An excerpt from an article by Dr. Joel McDurmon said that God quotes this verse from Himself more than any other verse – “This verse is quoted or alluded to a whopping 23 times in the NT! It is quoted in 11 out of 27 NT books, and by 7 of the 9 NT authors.” Jesus will later use this verse to prove to the Jews that He is greater than King David, the psalmist, because He is the Son of God (Matthew 22:44).
Psalm 110:2-3 – “The Lord shall send the rod of Your strength out of Zion. Rule in the midst of Your enemies! Your people shall be volunteers in the day of Your power; in the beauties of holiness, from the womb of the morning, You have the dew of Your youth.”
Spurgeon says Jesus is not inactive while sitting at the right hand of God in heaven. However, “We look for the clearer manifestation of His almighty power in the latter days; but even in these waiting times we rejoice that to the Lord all power is given in heaven and in earth.” The Lord is now, always has been, and always will be, in full control of everything in heaven and earth.
Spurgeon explains that the sending forth of the rod of strength is the gospel going forward creating converts; and the metaphor of the dew is about new converts “so these willing armies of converts have a holy excellence and charm about them: and as the dew is the lively emblem of freshness, so are these converts full of vivacity and youthful vigour, and the church is refreshed by them and made to flourish exceedingly.” Disciples of Jesus Christ, those who have accepted Him as their Savior, are now enlisted in the army of the Lord. And by the power of the Holy Spirit, the Lord sends us out to share the gospel with the world.
Psalm 110:4 – “The Lord has sworn and will not relent, ‘You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.’”
Melchizedek, king of Salem and a priest of God, was introduced in the Patriarch Era when he blessed Abraham after Abraham rescued Lot, the people, and all their belongings and returned them to Sodom (Genesis 14:17-24). Spurgeon says, “Melchizedek’s office was exceptional, none preceded or succeeded him; he comes upon the page of history mysteriously; no pedigree is given, no date of birth, or mention of death; he blesses Abraham, receives tithe and vanishes from the scene amid honours which show that he was greater than the founder of the chosen nation… Our Lord Jesus, like Melchizedek, stands forth before us as a priest of divine ordaining, not made a priest by fleshly birth, as the sons of Aaron… His order begins and ends in His own person, and in Himself it is eternal, ‘having neither beginning of days nor end of years The King Priest has been here and left His blessing upon the believing, and now He sits in glory in his complete character, stoning for us by the merit of his blood, and exercising all power on our behalf.’”
Psalm 110:5-7 – “The Lord is at Your right hand; He shall execute kings in the day of His wrath. He shall judge among the nations, He shall fill the places with dead bodies, He shall execute the heads of many countries. He shall drink of the brook by the wayside; Therefore He shall lift up the head.”
These verses refer to the last days when Jesus will come back and judge the world. At the end of the story, we will read how Jesus will return – “Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war. His eyes were like a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns. He had a name written that no one knew except Himself. He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The word of God. And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS” (Revelation 19:16).
Jesus is coming once as the innocent lamb to be slaughtered, but He will return one day as the mighty Priest King. “In the latter days we look for terrible conflict and for final victory. Long has Jesus borne with our rebellious race, but at length He wilt rise to end the warfare of longsuffering, by the blows of justice. God has fought with men’s sins for their good, but He will not always by his Spirit strive with men; He will cease from that struggle of long suffering love, and begin another which shall soon end in the final destruction of His adversaries. O King priest, we who are, in a minor degree, king priests too, are full of gladness because Thou reignest even now, and wilt come ere long to vindicate thy cause and establish Thine empire for ever. Even so, come quickly. Amen.” ~ Charles Spurgeon
Keep reading. (Psalm 103, Psalms 108-110, Psalms 122, 124)